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Environmental Studies

Environmental Studies

Question 1: Steps Involved in Development and Implementation of a Pollution Prevention Plan

The first step for developing and implementing a pollution prevention plan for a large manufacturing plant is the development of pollution prevention goals. Developing goals is vital because it helps in the identification of the required accomplishments.

The second step is to obtain commitment from the upper management. The management will help improve the focus on pollution reduction through resource provision and support.

The third step is to come up with a pollution prevention team.  According to Bishop (2000), establishing a pollution prevention team is crucial because it helps accommodate employees in the overall plan. They become more responsible.

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The fourth step is the development of a baseline. The baseline should be developed in compliance with the provisions of the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) and the reporting requirements of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA).

The fifth step is the identification of strategies to prevent pollution and the conduction of opportunity assessment. This will be done using the baseline data to comply with the provisions of the law relating to pollution.

The sixth step is to come up with a criteria rank pollution prevention activities at the manufacturing plant. This involves the integration of key prevention strategies into the activities of the manufacturing plant.

The last step is to conduct a management review, which helps in the assurance of support from the upper management. The process for pollution management would be underway at this stage.

Question 2: Steps to Minimize the Amount of Feedstock Consumed and Amount of Waste Generated

The first step is resource optimization, which would ensure the industry maximizes the use of its raw materials without going beyond the limit.

The second step is to engage in the reuse of scrap metal within the industry. It would be crucial to investigate this step to ensure the industry re-introduces its scrap at the beginning of each manufacturing process to come up with new products that help reduce the amount of wastes.

The third step is to establish an improved quality control and process monitoring procedure.  Bishop (2000) affirms that an improved quality control and process monitoring would ensure that the amount of feedstock consumed is kept at a minimum and the amount of waste in the industry reduced significantly.

The fourth step is to engage in waste exchanges. This step would be undertaken to ensure that the waste product of one stage is used as the input in the next process in the industry. The amount of feedstock consumption reduces hence reducing the amount of wastes produced.

The last step is to ship raw materials and components directly to the point of use to minimize handling at different stages of the manufacturing process hence alleviating the amount of wastes produced.

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Question 3: Negative Tree

Negative tree is the logging practice that entails the complete clearance of trees from an area regardless of their size and intended use. Again, the scrub or shrub left over after the clearance is always burnt hence leaving a smoky haze over the area for a number of days.  Oakley (2003) reiterates that negative tree comes with severe environmental consequences such as the loss of a habit in the cleared area and the rise in temperatures in the given area.

Question 4: Concepts Surrounding Apollo Root Cause Analysis

One of the most significant concepts surrounding the Apollo Root Cause Analysis is consequences. Consequences refer to the harmful effects that are caused by particular events in the company. Another key concept is success, which refers to the near-certain prevention of the recurrence of a particular problem. Success is achieved when the problem does not occur again at regular intervals.  Oakley (2003) opines that causal factors is also a key concept surrounding the Apollo Root Cause Analysis. It means the factors contributing to the occurrence of the problem.

Question 5: Purpose of Using a Fishbone Diagram During Investigation

            Firstly, the fishbone diagram is used for the purpose of defining and displaying the major causes and the secondary causes of a particular problem. It is worth noting that it is simple to come up with some of the key causes of the problem using a fishbone diagram. This helps individuals establish some of the key causes of the problem and other contributing factors to smoothen the overall process of investigation. This gives investigators a wide scope of the factors that could have caused the problem hence enabling them investigate with a focus.

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Secondly, the fishbone diagram is used for visualizing any possible relationships between the problems that may have led to the problem.  According to Oakley (2003), the fishbone diagram offers a clear opportunity for investigators to identify any form of relationships between the factors that cause a particular problem. This means they will have a better chance of tackling such problems with a clear idea on how their interconnection leads to the occurrence of the problem.

Lastly, the fishbone diagram is used for the provision of a focus for discussion and consensus among the investigators. It offers investigators the opportunity to focus on particular issues that leads to the occurrence of the problem. They are able to have a wider and narrow focus on the problem hence coming up with significant solutions to solve these problems with a narrowest approach possible. It also ensures they agree on the particular points of focus relating to a particular problem.

Question 6: Problems with the Cause and Effect Process

            One of the most significant problems with the cause and effect process is that it does not easily reveal the root cause in instances where the cause is not known. Notably, the cause and effect requires a preemption of the cause that could have led to the problem. The lack of a known problem makes it difficult for the cause and effect process to show the root cause of the problem. This may water down the efforts of investigators by making them select a wrong root cause of the problem.

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Additionally, the cause and effect process tends to assume that each symptom has one cause. This might not be necessarily true in cases where the symptoms have more than one cause.  Oakley (2003) asserts that it does not put into consideration other sufficient causes of the identified symptoms hence narrowing the scope of focus. Investigators would not be able to identify other causes relating to the identified symptoms. This is because each symptom would have to be limited to one cause.

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Another problem is the inability of the process to establish the difference between causal factors and the root cause of a particular problem. The cause and effect process limits the ability of investigators in terms of identifying the cause and the effect of the process. Some of these problems are classified together by investigators hence making it difficult for individuals to distinguish them significantly. The distinction of these problems makes it easier for investigators to tackle each of these problems from an appropriate angle without mixing the approaches.