Scientific Contributions of Alexander Fleming and Charles Darwin
It is difficult to imagine the contemporary scientific progress without the theoretical and practical breakthroughs of Alexander Fleming and Charles Darwin. Both scientists have considerably contributed to the modern achievements and advancements in the sphere of biology, immunology, pharmacology, and other fields. Numerous studies and researches apply the discoveries and theories of these prominent scientists to reach the new heights in the development of medicine and natural sciences. Obviously, Alexander Fleming and Charles Darwin worked in different scientific fields and focused on various problems of biology. However, the notable similarity between them consists in their incomparable contributions and breakthroughs, which channeled the further development of the sciences. Overall, Alexander Fleming and Charles Darwin developed their careers in different fields of researches and emphasize on various issues at the same time bearing a great resemblance in terms of their importance and significance for the medicine, biology, and other natural sciences.
Scientific Carrier of Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming is a prominent Scottish scientist, who worked in the spheres of bacteriology, immunology, and biology. A. Fleming obtained solid educational background, graduating from the Kilmarnock Academy and Royal Polytechnic Institution. After finishing his studies, young A. Fleming started working in the vaccine therapy and immunology. His scientific findings such as the discovery of enzyme lysozyme and the antibiotic substance brought him numerous awards and global recognition. In 1945, A. Fleming won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his significant contribution to the treatment of infectious diseases and invention of the antibiotic substance known as penicillin.
During the World War II, Alexander Fleming paid a great attention to the invention of anti-bacterial chemical, which could have protected the human organism from the harmful effects of antiseptics. It was estimated that bacteria and infections killer not so many soldiers as the antiseptic substances did. Under the conditions of war and military medicine, there was a pressing need to discover the antibacterial substance to prevent the deaths of wounded soldiers. The solution came spontaneously. After a range of experiments and researches, A. Fleming discovered that not all colonies of staphylococci were equally infected with the fungus. The further researches helped to identify the reason and invent the penicillin.
The invention of the penicillin was one of the most crucial ad significant achievements in medicine and immunology. The discovery of this substance helped to overcome numerous diseases and saved lives of thousands people. With the help of penicillin, it became possible to overcome pneumonia, meningitis, diphtheria, and many other infectious illnesses. The discovery of antibiotics marked a new era in medicine and gave it new opportunities and capacities.
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Additionally, Alexander Fleming made considerable contributions to the fields of immunology, chemotherapy, and bacteriology. The findings of A. Fleming are of paramount importance for the humanity since they represent new tools and methods of fighting against the lethal diseases. From this point of view, the scientific carrier of Alexander Fleming is a notable breakthrough in the natural sciences and new word in the contemporary medicine.
Charles Darwin and His Findings
Charles Darwin is an English naturalist, whose scientific carrier concerns the evolutionary theories and discoveries of the origin of all living beings. Ch. Darwin is best known for his evolutionary theory, which states that all species have undergone a long period of evolution, which started from the common ancestor. Besides, Charles Darwin developed the basic principles of evolution and interpretation of species’ survival and cooperation within the eco-systems. To a great extent, Ch. Darwin’s findings explain the origin of humans as well as physiological and psychological mechanisms of people and animals.
Charles Darwin obtained his education at the University of Edinburgh and Oxford University. His field of interest comprised of the evolutionary studies of humans and other living beings. He suggested his interpretation of the evolution, which stated that all species derive from a common ancestor. In the process of evolution, the survival of certain species is explained by the processes of natural selection and struggle for existence. Ch. Darwin names these two processes the primary principles of evolution and the main reasons of extinction and survival of living beings. Darwin’s evolutionary theory faced much criticism at his time. The matter was in the innovative character of this theory, which seemed to contradict the commonly accepted standards of the creationistic theory of the human origin and evolution.
Overall, Ch. Darwin’s findings strongly enriched the evolutionary studies and explained the natural laws of co-existence of various species. Moreover, Ch. Darwin published numerous articles about the sexual behavior, emotional displays, and descent of the humans. His works were also concerned with the analysis of animals’ behavior and co-existence within one eco-system. Thus, the discoveries and theories of Ch. Darwin represented great value for the evolutionary studies and comprehension of the naturalistic laws and regulations of species.
Implications of A. Fleming and Ch. Darwin’s Findings
As it has been already mentioned, the investigations of these scientists have changed the course of the human history and development of sciences. The invention of antibiotics allowed medicine to prevent human deaths from numerous infections and create new effective tools of overcoming serious diseases. Moreover, A. Fleming’s discoveries enable humans to obtain the needed substances and utilize them for the sake of human health and welfare.
The effect of Ch. Darwin’s evolutionary theory was significant as well. It allowed rethinking the origin of humans and their role in the evolutionary process of living beings. Additionally, the suggested mechanisms of survival and laws of evolution enabled the modern science to examine the co-existence of species and identify the reasons of the extinction or survival in the course of evolution.
Comparison and Contrast of A. Fleming and Ch. Darwin
The scientific careers of Alexander Fleming and Charles Darwin have many common features. Thus, both scientists were innovators in the fields of their activities as both the invention of penicillin and evolutionary theory of species were the new discoveries, which had not been made or analyzed before. Secondly, both Fleming and Darwin changed the traditional perception of medicine and biology on the account of their progressive views and discoveries. The findings of both researchers provided new visions and ideas for the further development of science.
When speaking about the differences between two sciences, it is important to mention that the inventions of A. Fleming have found the immediate recognition, while Ch. Darwin’s ideas remained underestimated during a long period. Furthermore, the discovery of A. Fleming was rather spontaneous, while the achievements of Ch. Darwin are the results of the long years of analysis and examination. Finally, the difference between A. Fleming and Ch. Darwin consists in the practical implementation of their findings as the invention of penicillin refers to the practical utilization, while the theory of Ch. Darwin creates a solid background for the further analysis.
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To sum up, both A. Fleming and Ch. Darwin have strongly contributed to the development and improvement of the natural sciences. The achievements of these scientists have changed the conventional imagination about the world and humans’ place in it. The practical meaning of A. Fleming and Ch. Darwin’s breakthroughs consists in the possibility to ascertain the natural principles of survival and use the maximum from the co-existence with different living creatures. Nowadays, the contemporary science widely implements the ideas and findings of these inventors and builds new theories and experiments on their basis.