Abortion Is Not Good
Abortion is a controversial issue within the healthcare industry. Drawbacks and serious consequences of abortion can be regarded as a primary issue. Along with these consequences, mental, ethical and moral issues of abortion have become more widespread. Popular methods of abortion, such as contraception and sterilization, will be regarded in the paper. This paper provides examples of social dilemmas about abortion. Also, the consequences of using birth control pills, vaginal rings, patches and injections are defined here. The research materials for this paper show that contraception and sterilization methods can make a woman physically and mentally weak. In addition, the paper analyses the results of abortion. It provides information about the unsafe abortion and its critical consequences. Moreover, the paper provides a conclusion with the views of experts and current facts. These facts and experiments have proven that abortion can cause depression, breast cancer, Post-Abortion Syndrome and other serious health problems. Hence, these facts and experiments have proved that abortion is not good for woman’s health.
Why is abortion a number one question in health care? Although the abortion was legalized more than 35 years ago (Major et al., 2008), it continues to generate enormous controversy in different spheres. According to these scientists, main aspects of this controversy have focused on the effects of abortion on women’s health, mental as well, on the methods of contraception and sterilization. In most countries women have legal rights to choose in favor of abortion, but these decisions do not solve the mental, ethical and moral issues connected with abortion. Legal right of a person wishes does not necessarily coincide with moral right. In nursing, professionals should determine their roles in the abortion procedure. Even if the patient decides to have an abortion, it remains an open question whether nursing professionals will and should choose to participate in the procedure (Singh et al., 2009).
In some societies, abortion involves cultural and religious issues. For example, if an unmarried teenager becomes pregnant, her parents, relatives or partner may force her to have an abortion. On the other hand, abortion may take place if the fetus is not the sex the parents or relatives wanted. In most circumstances, medical authorities perform abortion procedures by applying sterilization methods. Serious issues of consent arise when a young patient claims that she has been sterilized without her permission. People also have different God understandings. Whatever woman’s present beliefs are, a spiritual attitude to abortion should be considered. In some societies abortion may have an impact on women’s relationship with God. This can be regarded as a sin. Such conditions may create mental and physical harms to the patient. Thus, nursing care authorities should be careful in abortion procedures (Singh et al., 2009).
A lot of scientists and medical workers view abortion as a possible stressful life event among the other normal life stressors (Adler et al., 1990). Abortion occurs as a second stressful event in life after a pregnancy that is unwanted, unintended, or associated with certain life problems. Consequently, it becomes difficult to single out psychological stress associated with abortion not with other aspects of the pregnancy. It is stated that abortion can both lead to relief and also beget additional stress.
Methods of birth control
According to Planned Parenthood® Federation of America Inc., nowadays abortions are very common. For example, in the United States 3 out of 10 women have an abortion by the age of 45 (Planned Parenthood® Federation of America Inc., 2014).
If a woman is pregnant, she has options. If she is trying to understand whether abortion is the right choice or not, she probably has a lot of things to think about. This decision should be carefully weighed. If a woman is under 18, the state may require permission for the abortion of her parents. Nevertheless, only a woman can understand what is better for her. Medical workers can only give advice what method of abortion to choose
Medical professionals use a variety of birth control methods. Scientists have invented different pills and technologies to control unwanted childbirth. However, these methods may create mental dilemmas to a woman. As Planned Parenthood® Federation of America Inc. states, contraception and sterilization are two most common methods of birth control.
There are also several kinds of in-clinic abortion procedure. The most common is aspiration, differently called vacuum aspiration. Aspiration is usually made not later than in 16 weeks after the last period of a woman. Another kind of in-clinic procedure is D&E — dilation and evacuation. Usually D&E is performed later than 16 weeks after the last period of a woman (Planned Parenthood® Federation of America Inc., 2014). Though, these methods will not be observed in this paper.
Contraception or fertility controls are the methods or devices that prevent pregnancy. These methods include oral pills, vaginal rings, patches and injections. The value of contraception is closely related with the ethics of abortion. Some similar issues of sexual morality are raised, including moral legitimacy of manipulation of the procreative process. However, such processes may affect women physically and mentally. Most of the birth control pills do not protect women against HIV or sexually transmitted diseases. Researchers proved that women who use the patch have more chances to get dangerous blood clots in the lungs or legs. The risks of blood clotting increase, if a woman smokes or has other health problems. Often, such health condition may cause mental weakness or stress of a woman (Singh et al., 2009).
Moreover, there exist special abortion pills. The abortion pill is a medicine that ends an early pregnancy. Usually, it is used up to 9 weeks after the first day of a woman’s last period. The name for this pill is mifepristone (Planned Parenthood® Federation of America Inc., 2014).
A woman can feel confident in as the abortion pill is very effective. According to the scientists, tt works effectively about 97 out of 100 times. Though, some of the medicines may cause serious birth defects if the pregnancy is not stopped. That is why, it is necessary to be sure in the success of the procedure (Major et al., 2008).
To be more confident in personal safety, before taking the abortion pill, every woman will need to:
- discuss her options;
- talk about her medical history;
- have laboratory tests;
- have a physical exam;
- read and sign papers.
Planned Parenthood® Federation of America Inc. states that the process of medication abortion begins immediately after taking the pill (Planned Parenthood® Federation of America Inc., 2014). There are three steps of this process:
- The abortion pill
The health care provider will give a woman the abortion pill at the clinic. She will be also given some antibiotics. The abortion pill blocks the hormone progesterone. Without progesterone, the pregnancy cannot continue.
A woman will take a second medicine called Misoprostol. It empties the uterus. This medicine should be taken 24-48 hours after taking the abortion pill.
A woman will need to follow up during two weeks. Follow-up is a crucial process to be sure that abortion is complete. A woman will need an ultrasound or blood test.
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According to Singh et al., the nursing staffs perform sterilization procedures to perform an abortion. It is one of the complicated processes, which can make a woman physically and mentally weak and stressed. Sterilization raises several ethical and moral questions and complications. This process involves surgeries to cut or block female fallopian tubes (Singh et al., 2009).
Blocking the tubes can be done in several ways. It can be done by tying and cutting the tubes. This process is called tubal ligation. The fallopian tubes can also be closed by using an instrument with an electrical current. It can also be done with rings, clips, or clamps. Sometimes, it is necessary to remove a small piece of the tube (Planned Parenthood® Federation of America Inc., 2014).
Many people believe the sterilization is particularly objectionable. It is often presumed irreversibly. Many healthcare employees who are committed to rational planning and keep one’s options open have traditionally been unwilling to participate in sterilization methods. In fact, nursing professionals face ethical dilemmas in sterilization, and they have been known to refuse to consider sterilization methods. This is especially true with younger women and women who do not have children yet (Singh et al., 2009).
This happens because there are several possible disadvantages of sterilization. Sterilization is not good choice if a woman:
- wants to have a child in the future;
- is being pressured by a partner, or family;
- is using it to solve problems that may be temporary, such as financial worries, for example (Major et al., 2008).
Moreover, a woman can feel some kind of discomfort after the procedure. The discomfort a woman feels depends on her general health, attitude to pain and the type of procedure. Usually women feel tired and have pain in their abdomen. Sometimes a woman can feel dizzy, gassy or nauseous. Normally, these symptoms will last no more than 3 days.
Nevertheless, a lot of women consider sterilization as a safe procedure. It is also regarded as simple and convenient one because it lasts for life. This method allows a woman to enjoy sex not worrying about pregnancy. A lot of people say that they have more sexual pleasure as they do not have the necessity of thinking about undesirable pregnancy. It is also preferred by many women as sterilization does not change their hormones (Planned Parenthood® Federation of America Inc., 2014).
Every woman should consider any possible life changes. Moreover, a woman does not need her partner’s permission to be sterilized. Nevertheless, it may be helpful to discuss this essential for every woman procedure with a partner or family not to make a crucial mistake.
Results and Discussion
Abortion can be described as a fundamental aspect of human behavior. However, due to the ban on the abortion in many countries, it is performed under unhygienic and unsafe conditions at many places. Every year, millions of women face mental illnesses due to the abortion. According to David M. Fergusson, L. John Horwood and Joseph M. Boden, women who have had abortions have about 30% higher rates of mental disorders (Fergusson et al., 2008).
The health risks undermine all the so-called advantages and problem-solving nature of abortion (Adler et al., 1990). The truth is that abortion influences both mothers and children, even if future pregnancies are concerned. It is stated that abortion increases the risk of pre-term birth of women’s future children.
The undeniable risks of abortion complications include hemorrhage, blood clots, infections and injury to different organs. Moreover, abortion can also be a cause of shock, missed ectopic pregnancy and cardiac arrest.
According to the scientists, abortion is often connected with an increased risk of breast cancer. It is scientifically proved that a first full-term pregnancy lowers the degree of risk of breast cancer. Abortion before 32 weeks expels the affect protecting a woman against breast cancer (Major et al., 2008).
Around 78,000 women in the world die from illegal and unsafe abortions. One-third of the women in the world cannot have access to legal or safe abortions. More than 30% of women who have an unsafe abortion suffer from severe complications, such as infertility, or sepsis and hemorrhaging. Almost every statistic and research shows that the abortion and corresponding death rates are different in developed and developing countries. In developing countries, more liberal abortion laws presuppose fewer health consequences from unsafe abortion. For example, in South Africa abortion death rates fell greatly after the liberalization of the abortion law. In Sweden, despite legalization of the abortion, the abortion rate is merely 19 per 1000 women. Ironically, their birth rate increased to more than two children per woman since 1990’s. The Canadian Government does not restrict abortion although Canada has the lowest maternal mortality rate in the world, at 0.1 per 100,000 abortions (Singh et al., 2009).
In contrast, consequences of abortion are deplorable in countries where abortion is illegal. Except Cuba and Guyana, abortion is illegal in every country in Central and South America. However, abortion is widely practiced illegally in those countries. Every year, at least four million illegal abortions occur in Latin America, which is the highest estimated rate of unsafe abortions in the world. In Brazil, every year 250,000 women are hospitalized due to unsafe abortion. Asian countries such as Nepal or Pakistan and African countries such as Nigeria or Uganda have the worst conditions for abortion in the world.
- E Adler and other scientists consider post-abortion care to be an essential task for preventing deaths and illnesses caused by unsafe abortion. The treatment of complications and access to a family planning methods are the main components necessary for preventing future unwanted pregnancies (Adler, 1990).
In conclusion, considering all facts and scientific proofs, it is clear that the abortion causes damage to a woman’s health and her life in various aspects. It exerts immense effects on mental states of women. Abortion can create the risks of injury to a woman’s reproductive organs and loss of her fertility. It can make women mentally weak, and they can have the issues of depression, breast cancer and Post-Abortion Syndrome. Also, it causes physical, emotional, moral, social and medical effects on a woman’s mind. Therefore, abortion is not good for women.
Moreover, the present research has shown that abortion is an inhuman act of intentional killing of life. The worst thing about killing a fetus is that it is divested of the future. The fetus can grow up and become a person making various contributions to life, which can save the society in the future. This is the loss of these opportunities that makes the abortion wrong.
It is also found out that abortions continue to occur in all regions of the world, no matter what status of abortion laws they have. Unintended pregnancies make women resort to unsafe abortions in case the safe one is not available. Consequently, some women will have complications and even will die. Measures for reducing the rates of unintended pregnancy and, as a result, unsafe abortion, are most essential steps toward healthy society. These measures include better access to family planning services, increased effectiveness of contraceptive use, and guaranteed access to safe abortion and post‐abortion treatment.