Interdiction and Investigation
Adedipe, A., Maher, P. J., & Strote, J. (2013). Injuries associated with law enforcement use of force. Trauma, 15(2), 99-106. doi:10.1177/1460408612467611
The article addresses the face of law enforcement from the hospital perception point of view. There are many victims of law enforcement, who have been implicated due to the use of excessive force and, thus, leading to wounds and consequent hospitalization. While justice and law enforcement needs to factor in all conditions of the victim, the information is usually of high importance as extremities can arise from this condition. The strength of this article is the focus on the hospital information in ensuring law enforcement. Its weakness is the failure to document how the victims are protected through hospital assessment and records.
Bodrero, D. (2002). Law enforcement’s new challenge to investigate, interdict and prevent terrorism. Police Chief, 69(2), 41-48.
The author examines the role of local and state law enforcement procedures in the post-9/11 period. It includes a large number of counter-terrorism practices including detecting, investigating, and preventing terrorism attacks in the future. The author has determined key characteristics of the “typical criminal” in the current US environment. The main issues that motivate most individuals are control aspects and greed. Bodrero also stresses that the processes of intelligence gathering and analytical investigation should become more flexible and productive. The main strengths of this article include its deep research and concentration on various practical moments. The main weaknesses are inappropriate structuring of information and the absence of specific recommendations that may improve the current state of affairs in this field.
Bugl, H. et al. (2007). DNA synthesis and biological security. Nature Biotechnology, 25, 627-629.
The authors analyze the dominant legal concerns associated with security issues in the area of DNA synthesis for commercial purposes. They have determined key motivation and principles of manipulation of genetic material used in the US. They explain that effective law enforcement in this sphere includes interdicting, investigating, and deterring such criminal actions. Bugl et al. (2007) have determined five main goals that should be met in dealing with this problem. The main strengths of this article include its high systematization value as well as a number of specific recommendations about a DNA synthesis screening process. The main weakness is the lack of theoretical justification of reasons because the authors believe their method is the most effective from a practical point of view.
Heyman, J. (1999). Why interdiction? Immigration control at the United States-Mexico border. Regional Studies, 33(7), 619-630.
The author examines the current regulations in the sphere of the US-Mexico border control. A number of contradictions and legal inefficiencies are specified. Heyman believes that political interest dominate in this sphere in comparison with economic one. The ultimate purpose of these actions is opposing globalization in all its forms. Heyman has provided deep ethnographic work that supports his hypotheses. The political control also directly affects specific technologies that are applied during border control. The main strengths of this article are the clear formulation of the initial hypothesis and its empirical verification through available data. The main weaknesses include the absence of practical recommendations for improvement as well as unsupported claim about long-term benefits of globalization for both countries under consideration.
Bayley, D. (2006). Law enforcement and the rule of law: Is there a tradeoff? Criminology & Public Policy, 2(1), 133-154.
The author analyzes evidence-based arguments about the violation of police the rule-of-law principles, and its influence on personal and collective interests. The research counters the position of many police officers about the justification of cutting legal corners for the sake of common interests. Thus, Bayley has specified seven reasons that show that violating these principles contradicts the interests of police. The author proposes to change the dominant police culture in accordance with a large set of empirical evidences. The main strengths of this article include its critical assessment of various alternative hypotheses, and reliance on practical evidences to determine the truth. Its main weaknesses are concentration on the narrow area without further elaboration for the legal system in general; also, author proposes to provide this research in further studies.
Steffen, G., & Candelaria, S. (2004). Currency seizures during interdiction investigation. Law & Order, 52(3), 40-47.
The authors analyze the dominant techniques used in the process of currency seizure during interdiction investigation in the sphere of drug control. The authors examine the current law restrictions that exist regarding law enforcement as officials should prove the existence of a criminal nexus. The requirements of proper documentation are inspected in detail. All key elements should be correspondingly documented. The authors also examine the role of interview skills. The optimal packaging and transportation strategy is outlined. All decisions of currency seizures should be supported by evidences and gathered information. The main strengths of the article include the precise presentation of all formal requirements in the sphere of currency seizure. The main weakness refers to the lack of legal analysis and corresponding recommendations.
Rider, B. (1996). The practical and legal aspects on interdicting the flow of dirty money. Journal of Financial Crime, 3(3), 234-253.
The author examines the motivation of financial crimes including premeditation. Rider specifies some practical problems associated with difficulties of determining the sources of obtaining wealth. Although the government and other institutions implement numerous measures for creating obstacles for money laundering, it is highly plausible that this problem will continue to exist in the future due to strong incentives from potential criminals. Thus, it is highly problematic to develop measures that will completely neutralize criminals’ incentives for money laundering. The main strengths of this article include the explanation of motivational aspects of criminals’ actions, and specification of reasons of low efficiency of government policies in this field. The main weakness is the absence of an integrated approach towards dealing with this problem.
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Wilson, D., Walsh, W., & Kleuber, S. (2006). Trafficking in human beings: Training and services among US law enforcement agencies. Police Practice & Research: An International Journal, 7(2), 149-160.
The authors explain the current serious public concerns regarding trafficking of women and children. They outline a number of federal policies that are recently introduced by the US government in order to improve the situation with human trafficking. Wilson, Walsh, & Kleuber claim that local law enforcement officers may be more efficient in comparison with federal agents. Their reasoning is that they are more aware of the existing problems with prostitution and similar conditions that may be directly related to human trafficking. In general, the current system existing at the local level seems to be inefficient as the majority of correct actions are not taken. The main strengths of this article include the search for improvement and providing specific and potentially efficient recommendations. The main weakness is the absence of proposals regarding the optimization of operations between federal and local agents.
Budowle, B. et al. (2007). Role of law enforcement response and microbial forensics in investigation of bioterrorism. Croatian Medical Journal, 48, 437-449.
The authors point out that the growing threats of bioterrorism force national governments to pay additional attention to introducing new and more effective biosecurity measures. Budowle et al. propose to distribute optimally the main responsibilities among governments, the private, and public sectors. Three methods of validation are proposed in order to investigate the existing risks, and select the adequate responding strategy. The authors also recognize the importance of public awareness of the problem for the mobilization of resources. The main strengths of the article include a high concentration of technical aspects of the problem and the proposals about validation procedures. The main weakness is the absence of the precise rationale for the distribution of power and responsibilities among all parties involved.
Corsaro, N., Brunson, R., & McGarrell, E. (2013). Problem-oriented policing and open-air drug markets: Examining the Rockford Pulling Levers Deterrence Strategy. Crime & Delinquency, 59, 1085-1107.
The authors claim that problem-oriented police strategies may serve as a reliable method for minimizing the scopes of illegal drug markets. The research examines the actual results of different government policies in Rockford (IL). The quantitative model may be used for spreading the positive experience in other regions of the country. Qualitative methods such as interviews with residents are also implemented. A number of practical recommendations for public policy are formulated. The main strengths include the optimal balance between qualitative and quantitative techniques as well as concrete policy recommendations. The main weakness is the proposal of using the same pattern in all regions of the country without the proper attention to the local specific environment.
Cropp, D. (2012). The theory and practice of collaborations in law enforcement. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 14(3), 213-218. doi:10.1350/ijps.2012.14.3.284
This article is aimed at ensuring collaboration, collaborative problem-solving and learning in solving crimes. The law enforcement officers have to embrace collaboration with other stakeholders to handle cases of vulnerable populations like elderly, women and children. The article uses the germane anecdote Sacramento and DVCP (domestic violence prevention collaboration) to handle cases. The strength of the article is that it focuses on the competitive advantage off collaboration and handling crimes. The weak point is lack of documentation of how collaboration has helped in saving lives and enforcing law.
Chaney, C., & Robertson, R. (2013). Racism and police brutality in America. Journal of African American Studies, 17(4), 480-505. doi:10.1007/s12111-013-9246-5
The authors focus on the changes that could have occurred due to brutality practiced on Rodney King. Law enforcement has been overshadowed by forces like brutality in the police department. In most cases, brutality has been directed towards the blacks and the minority races. The article gets data from the National Police Misconduct Statistics and Reporting Project (NPMSRP) to get its support on the findings and the recommendations, a strength that can be used to decide on other cases. There are studies on the perceptions about the police, race and racism among the American society. The authors found that police are seen with the contempt, suspicion and brutality, thus, these perceptions need to be incorporated when handling law enforcement and interdictions. The weak point of the article is the focus on the police brutality and not the circumstances leading such acts by the victims.
Haarhuis, C. & Niemeijer, E. (2009). Synthesizing legislative evaluations: Putting the pieces together. Evaluation Review, 15, 403-425.
The authors investigate the relationships between laws and policy measures. They examine laws from a meta-analytical perspective. They have developed a method for legislative evaluations. It is based on the synthesis approach and some principles of the sociology of law. Haarhuis and Niemeijer have provided deep empirical research to support their theory. Their key findings include that many laws contain new management interventions that may be subsequently introduced at the macro-level. They also propose to evaluate the complex chain of interactions of various legal events. The main strengths of the article include the determination of the role of laws in legal practice and public policy. Its main weakness is the absence of specific “mechanisms” associated with the developed model.
Harmon, R. (2013). Why do we (still) lack data on policing? Marquette Law Review, 96(4), 1119-1146.
The author examines the role of information in aiding police conduct and assistance to the federal and state regulation of policing. She focuses on the incompetence that the police has in lack of information that derails fair trial and judgment of cases. Information is required to know the trend of crimes and action with the consequent judgment on the criminal records. The main advantage of the article is that it focuses on legal limitations coupled with political interferences and the effect on the security. The weakness is that it does not offer solutions to the laxity of police officers in generating data out information for future cases.
Immigrant rights & Immigration Enforcement. (2013). Harvard Law Review, 126(6), 1565-1682.
The article focuses on the development involving law enforcement in the US immigration law and the children rights on the plenary power. It also focuses on several immigration laws in relation to the rights of immigrants. Immigrants face interdiction and, thus, the article is of great help to the law enforcement and the general public. The main strength of the article is its focus on the immigration based policies and the solutions to such crimes.
Investigation, S. O. (2004). The changing face of organized crime in New Jersey. Trends in Organized Crime, 8(2), 28-117.
The article gives a special focus on organized crimes in New Jersey and the transition to leadership with the in-built culture of the criminals. The articles scores big on the aspects of both non-traditional and traditional organized criminal groups with how they have advanced on using technology, language barriers and corruption to have their way out in New Jersey. There are changing dynamics in organized crimes that require law enforcers to know and act as per the advanced technology. The article does not give the loopholes existing justice system to curb the menace.
Lambert, D. (2010). Intelligence-led policing in a fusion center. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 79(12), 1-6.
The author emphasizes on the concepts of data fusion, fusion centers and the philosophy of using intelligence policing as they have been misunderstood and misinterpreted in many US courts. Many law enforcers are not aware of the fusion centers and their functionalities and, thus, many police officers and other law enforcing agents may lack important concepts of interpreting law. The main strength is the focus on the agencies of law enforcement and the possibilities of unfamiliarity. The article further gives statistics and charts to help understand their perceptions and familiarity of the fusion centers. However, it lacks recommendations to the law enforcing agencies on how to solve the problem.
Murphy, M. (2010). Race and civil asset forfeiture: A disparate impact hypothesis. Texas Journal on Civil Liberties & Civil Rights, 16(1), 77-100.
The author focuses on the institutional reforms that have interests on the civil asset forfeiture, which ensures justice to the minorities in the US. The theory of the forfeiture provisions were targets of funds transfers and capital withdrawal by drug dealers. The focus of drug trade is streamlined and, therefore, the law should be expanded to include other criminal offenses. The strength of the article is the focus on drugs and minorities. The weak point of the jurisdiction is the lack of inclusion of other crimes and major groups in the US.
Placide, M. M., & LaFrance, C. (2014). The county sheriff in films: A portrait of law enforcement as a symbol of rural America. International Journal Of Police Science & Management, 16(2), 101-112. doi:10.1350/ijps.2014.16.2.331
The authors focus on law enforcement at the rural setting where there has been a gap in enforcement. The authors acknowledge the gap that has existed in academic research about on county sheriffs and their role of law enforcement. The image of county sheriffs is more on the silver screens (films). Therefore, a deep study on the perception of the common man about sheriffs and the law enforcement is conducted where the sheriffs have been seen as the face of law enforcement at the rural setting of America. The article picks the general public view about the roles and duties of sheriffs and the duties that have to be performed. It is more exposing to the common man and helps understanding of law enforcement. The weak point is that it does not show the loopholes people have in law enforcement to help enlighten them.
Pinizzotto, A. J., Davis, E. F., Bohrer, S. B., & Infanti, B. J. (2012). Law enforcement restraint in the use of deadly force within the context of ‘the deadly mix’. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 14(4), 285-289. doi:10.1350/ijps.2012.14.4.289
The authors aim to expose the excessive application of force during enforcement, a major case witnessed in America. There is changing dynamics in deadly mix where excessive force is allowed and the police exercise restraint. Although the public in America have witnessed high use of deadly force for circumstances not requiring such actions, there remains high restraint by the police on using force. The article examines the rates and circumstances under which deadly force can be used to execute suspects. The main weakness the article fails to examine is the lack of provisions that protect the police officer in such actions.
Sweeney, M. A. (2014). Shadow immigration enforcement and its constitutional dangers. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 104(2), 227-282
The authors talk about “shadow immigration enforcement,” an increasing phenomenon where federal law enforcers act improper during immigration enforcement. There has been distorted way of immigration law enforcement especially by regular police. The main strength of the article is that it targets the improper actions done to the innocent and vulnerable “foreign-seeming” population for hyper-enforcement. The regular police use traffic or criminal laws to charge the victims. The weakness of the article does not offer the solutions to the victims of such actions. It should give the citizen the way forward to handle such police officers.
Sekhon, N. S. (2011). Redistributive policing. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 101(4), 1171-1226.
The author focuses on the failure by the police to act on some criminals and release others to continue criminal activities. The article focuses on the broad policymaking discretion that selectively picks some criminals and leaves others. It expounds on the harmful distributive consequences of such selections. The article challenges partisan arrests done by the police as the courts do not give the partial justice but apply egalitarian distribution of arrests and justice. The main strength of the article is the exposure of the weaknesses of the judicial system. It focuses on the weaknesses experienced in the criminal justice from the police department. It should have consequences for in-egalitarian distributive consequences.
Tewksbury, R., & Ehrhardt Mustaine, E. (2013). Law-enforcement officials’ views of sex offender registration and community notification. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 15(2), 95-113. doi:10.1350/ijps.2013.15.2.305
The authors focus on the enforcer’s perceptions on the offender and the likely behavior that could determine the end of the case. Little is known about their perceptions and, thus, the degree of the offence and the SORN (Sex offender registration and community notification) procedures can help in making the final judgment. The strength of this article is the way it focuses on the methodologies of gauging sex offenders. These are some factors that can be highlighted during law enforcement to give a fair trial for sex offender. Its weakness is the lack of modulations to counter such pre-determined views.
Urbas, G. (2012). Cybercrime, jurisdiction and extradition: the extended reach of cross-border law enforcement. Journal of Internet Law, 16(1), 1-17.
The article discusses the fight of law enforcing agencies against cybercrimes. It also focuses on cross-border mechanisms that include mutual legal assistance and extradition cases. It focuses on the challenges faced by the law enforcers and the government on cybercrimes. The main strength of the article is that it details several challenges of cross-border cybercrimes. Its weakness is the lack of tried and tested mechanisms to handle cybercrimes and extradition.
Wilson, C. P., & Wilson, S. A. (2014). Are we there yet? Perceptive roles of African American police officers in small agency settings. Western Journal of Black Studies, 38(2), 123-133.
The authors of the article take a keener look at how the African-American police officers have perception about themselves and the communities they serve. There are several cases when the African-American police find themselves victims of racial indifferences. The main strength of the article is the focus on the problems and the perceptions directed towards the police and the hostile environment. This can help in understanding their behavior. The weakness is the lack of remedies to the police force in solving the perceptions and the supposedly hostile environment. The culture of racial perception is there and should be handled.